A government is a system of political direction and control exercised over the actions of a state, community, and individual members of an organized society. Governments are invested with the sovereign authority to maintain the good and welfare of the body politic, and are responsible for establishing and administering matters of public policy, exercising appropriate political direction through customs, laws, and assigned institutions, and directing the affairs and administrative hierarchy of a state or community. These systems of policy and executive authority formulate the underlying rules and principles by which a nation-state or municipality is governed, as well as regulating the social movements and activities of its populace.
Governments may be classified into many different forms, such as democracy, republic, monarchy, oligarchy, theocracy, and dictatorship. They are fundamental lynchpins for the existence of a civilized and judicial society. Government as an aggregate generally consists of administrators, legislators, and arbitrators who enact and enforce state policy, as well as mechanisms by which said policy is established. The type of government a nation or community possesses, as well as its political orientation and practices, are responsible for affecting human activity in almost every conceivable way – for this reason, the study of governance and exercise of sovereign authority is closely tied to fields such as political science, anthropology, sociology, socio-economic ideologies, environmentalism, philosophy, and history.
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