Within the realm of politics, public policy refers to declared nation or state objectives related to addressing public issues through the institution of laws, legislation, and government decisions on problems which affect the health and social welfare of its citizenry. Public policy is responsible for managing and addressing issues such as crime, educational practice and governance, foreign and international policy, and more through a series of responses (regulations, quotas, subsidies, et.) at the local, national, or international level. The process to create a new public policy, or develop an existing one, typically includes three stages of decision making: agenda setting, including media ability to influence public opinion on matters of policy, option formulation, which establishes viable alternatives during the formulation of policy, and implementation, the end-result and putting into practice of a newly-developed public policy.
The politics of public policy involves a large set of actors which are involved in the process of policy development, such as politicians, civil servants, domain experts, lobbyists, and industry representatives. Government sectors are expected to comply with public sector ethics when developing formal policy, and to take the needs of stakeholders into account in the process of development. Strong and well-structured legislation on and relating to public policy is meant to solve public problems of an economic, social, or political nature, and should serve judicial initiatives and support governmental institutions while at the same time improving quality of life for citizens.
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